unit and acceptance testing, automation, productivity

What is an optional value in Swift

Note: this is the first of a short series of short posts on Swift Optional, subscribe to the newsletter or RSS feed to avoid missing out on the next ones.

Optional values are definitely one of my favourite things about Swift.

I love they how force you to deal with nullability, and how the compiler never fails to remind when you are not doing so. I also love that if a value is not optional then I am guaranteed it is an actual value, and I don't have to worry about nil at all.

The Swift team has done a great job at making working with optional values easy and straightforward. Developers can work with optionals without really knowing they're there. This is great to onboard beginners, but I feel that to fully appreciate, and leverage, optionals we need to dig a bit deeper.

Let's have a look at this piece of code for example:

let x: String? = "Hello World"

if let y = x {

When I started looking into Swift my understanding of this code would have been something like: "there's a value x that is a String that may or may not be nil. Make sure that x is not nil, and if so print it".

That is what that code does, right?

The point that I was missing is that x is not "a String that may or may not be nil", but a different type all together.

In fact if you add a print(x.dynamicType) statement in the code above you'll see this in the console:


String? is actually syntactic sugar for Optional<String>, and Optional is a type in its own right.

Here's a simplified version of the header of Optional, which you can see by command-clicking on the word Optional in your code from Xcode:

enum Optional<Wrapped> {

  /// The absence of a value.
  case none

  /// The presence of a value, stored as `Wrapped`.
  case some(Wrapped)

Optional is actually an enum, defined in relation to a generic type Wrapped. It has two cases: .none to represent the absence of a value, and .some to represent the presence of a value, which is stored as its associated value of type Wrapped.

I find the fact that such a powerful tool is implemented in such a simple fashion remarkable and fascinating.

Let me go through it again: String? is not a String but an Optional<String>, Int? is not an Int but an Optional<Int>, and so on.

Understanding that optional values have a different type explains why we need to check if the actual value is there or not before using it.

One cannot call .length on an Optional<String> the same way one cannot call .legth on an Int, the type doesn't have the method. And even if it had it we would be calling it on the wrong object.

The fact that Optional is a type means that it has its own methods, for example map and flatMap. If you are curious about what they do check out this post.

What does "unwrapping optionals" really mean

When describing the if let example code above, if past me wanted to show off, it would have said "I unwrap the optional". But let me tell you, he didn't know what he was talking about.

Fortunately we now have seen that T? really means Optional<T>, and the whole wrapping business now makes more sense.

A value of optional type wraps another type. It can wrap any type, so in its definition we use a generic, which we can call T or Wrapped like the Swift team has done for extra clarity.

You can imagine Optional hugging Wrapped with its angle bracket arms, to keep it safe from the dangers of nullability.

Now the sentence "I unwrap the optional" makes more sense. Tools like if let aand guard let allow us to try to get the actual value out of its Optional wrapper, and react to the case when its not there.

I hope this post has helped you appreciating Swift's optional values, and understand what all those ? really mean. But what about the !? We'll look at them in the next post, subscribe to avoid missing out 😉.

Feel free to get in touch with me on Twitter @mokacoding or to leave a comment below if you have any questions or if there's something wrong in the post.

Leave the codebase better than you found it.

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